Urologic Cancers

Cancer is the result of fast and abnormal cell growth. Urologic Cancers affect the organs and structures of the male and female urinary system and the male reproductive system, which include cancers of the prostate, bladder, testis, kidney, penis, ureter and urethra.

Types Of Cancer:

Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer occurs in the prostate, which is the gland that produces a man’s prostate fluid. It is one of the most common types of cancer, and some late symptoms include discomfort in the pelvis, erectile dysfunction, blood in the semen and difficulty urinating.

However, most cancers are asymptomatic. Men can go for a prostate cancer screening called a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test to check for signs of the cancer, and if the disease is identified, further testing will be performed. Dr Maharajh may recommend further ultrasound to evaluate the prostate and may also collect a tissue sample for analysis and to determine if there are cancer cells present.

Bladder cancer

Common symptoms of bladder cancer include:

  • Blood in the urine
  • Frequent and painful urination
  • Pelvic and back pain

Diagnosis & Treatment

Dr Choonara will perform several tests, including cystoscopy, which involves the insertion of a thin tube into the urethra and allows him to examine the inside of the bladder. During this test, he may also do a biopsy, in which a cell sample is taken for further testing. Urine testing may also be required, and imaging tests like x-rays, and CT scans may also be taken in order to make an accurate diagnosis.

Treatment depends on the stage of the cancer. It may include some combination of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy. Surgical options may include transurethral resection, partial or complete removal of the bladder, or urinary diversion.

Testicular cancer

Testicular cancer can occur in one or both testicles and is relatively rare. Some signs of testicular cancer include:

  • Lumps in the testicles
  • Pain in the abdomen or groin
  • Pain and discomfort in the testicles or scrotum
  • Back pain

Diagnosis & Treatment

An ultrasound may be recommended and Dr Choonara may also do blood tests to check for tumour markers in the blood. If the lump is found to be cancerous, it may be necessary to surgically remove it for further analysis. Testicular cancer is highly treatable and usually curable. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or stem cell transplantation. Even in cases in which cancer has spread widely, chemotherapy often offers a cure rate greater than 80%.

Kidney cancer

Kidney cancer, also known as renal cancer, is a type of cancer that starts in the cells in the kidney and can spread to other parts of the body. Although there are often no symptoms in the early stages of the disease, as it becomes more advanced, some signs include:

  • Fatigue
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Blood in the urine
  • Back pain

Other symptoms may include tiredness, loss of appetite, weight loss, a high temperature and heavy sweating, and persistent pain in the abdomen, especially in the early stages of the disease.

Diagnosis & Treatment

Blood and urine tests and imaging tests like CT scans and MRIs may be recommended to look for tumours or other abnormalities. In some cases, a small tissue sample may be taken for further testing. Kidney cancer is most often treated with surgery, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, or a combination of these treatments. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy are occasionally used. People with kidney cancer that has spread, called metastatic cancer (see below), often receive multiple lines of therapy.

Penis cancer

Penile cancer occurs when cancerous cells form in the tissues of the penis and can spread to other parts of the body. Some common symptoms include lumps on the penis, as well as redness and irritation.

Treatment & Diagnosis

Dr Choonara will typically start by performing a full physical examination and will check the penis for signs of disease or abnormalities. He may take a small tissue sample for further testing. Treatment will be recommend based on the stage of the disease and your particular needs.

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