Male Urology

A urologist is a doctor specializing in the genitourinary tract – the kidneys, ureters, urethra, bladder, prostate gland, male reproductive organs and male fertility.

Symptoms:

Bladder Infection (Cystitis)

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. When it affects the lower urinary tract it is known as a bladder infection (cystitis).

Symptoms:

Symptoms from a lower urinary tract include pain with urination, frequent urination, and feeling the need to urinate despite having an empty bladder.

Causes:

All UTIs are the result of interactions between the infecting organism (bacteria, yeast, virus), the number of the organisms that are present in the bladder, and the body’s ability to fight off the organism. The most common way bacteria gain access to the urinary system from outside is through the urethra (the tube that allows urine to pass from the bladder to outside of the body). Increasing age is a risk factor for UTIs.

Diagnosis & Treatment:

In order to diagnose a urinary tract infection, Dr Choonara will do a urine test to check for bacteria. He may prescribe antibiotics to kill the bacteria and address the presenting symptoms. If symptoms do not improve in two or three days, further diagnostic testing may be needed.

Kidney Infection (Upper UTI)

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. When it affects the upper urinary tract it is known as a kidney infection (pyelonephritis).

Symptoms:

Symptoms of a kidney infection include fever and flank pain usually in addition to the symptoms of a lower UTI (pain with urination, frequent urination, and feeling the need to urinate despite having an empty bladder). Rarely the urine may appear bloody. In the very old and the very young, symptoms may be vague or non-specific.

Causes:

All UTIs are the result of interactions between the infecting organism (bacteria, yeast, virus), the number of the organisms that are present in the bladder, and the body’s ability to fight off the organism. The most common way bacteria gain access to the urinary system from outside is through the urethra (the tube that allows urine to pass from the bladder to outside of the body). Increasing age is a risk factor for UTIs.

Diagnosis & Treatment:

In order to diagnose a urinary tract infection, Dr Choonara will do a urine test to check for bacteria. He may prescribe antibiotics to kill the bacteria and address the presenting symptoms. If symptoms do not improve in two or three days, further diagnostic testing may be needed.

Testicular Disorders

The most common testicular disorders include:

  • testicular trauma
  • testicular torsion, and
  • testicular cancer

Testicular trauma refers to any injury to the testicles caused by a hard knock or kick (blunt trauma or penetrating trauma) and can cause severe pain, bruising and swelling. In very severe cases, a testicular rupture can occur, which causes blood to leak into the scrotum. This injury can be repaired surgically.

Testicular torsion refers to a condition that occurs when the spermatic cord within the scrotum becomes twisted. When this happens, the blood supply to the testicle is cut off and can result in pain, swelling and sensitivity. The condition can occur as a result of an injury and can be repaired surgically if it is diagnosed immediately before any permanent damage has been done. This is an emergency.

Kidney Stones

Bladder stones are small mineral deposits that can form in the bladder. In most cases bladder stones develop when the urine becomes very concentrated or when one is dehydrated. This allows for minerals, such as calcium or magnesium salts, to crystallize and form stones. Bladder stones vary in number, size and consistency.

Symptoms:

Some common symptoms include pain in the back, below the ribs, or in the groin and lower abdomen. It can also be painful to urinate, and urine may look cloudy, red, or brown, and smell bad. If there is an infection, you may experience a fever.

Treatment:

There are several treatment options available – shock wave lithotripsy, laser lithotripsy and surgery. Another treatment option is a procedure called ureteroscopy. During the procedure, Dr Choonara uses a thin scope to locate and remove the stones without making any incisions in the skin. The scope is passed into the kidney through the bladder and ureter. In some cases, a laser is also used to break the stones up into smaller pieces if they are too big to remove.

Bladder Dysfunction

Conditions that affect the functioning of the bladder include:

  • Cystitis

This condition causes inflammation in the bladder, and often develops as a result of an infection.

  • Urinary incontinence

This condition refers to a loss of bladder control. There are several types of this condition, and treatment depends on your specific symptoms.

  • Overactive bladder

This condition causes involuntary urine leakage, with frequent urination during the day and night.

  • Interstitial cystitis

This condition causes frequent urination and often causes pain and discomfort in the bladder.

  • Bladder cancer

This disease typically begins to develop in the lining of the bladder and can spread to other parts of the body.

Diagnosis & Treatment:

In order to diagnose these conditions, Dr Choonara will perform a range of tests, including urine tests, x-rays and a full examination of the bladder wall. This examination is performed with the use of a cystoscope, which is a special tube with a camera and light on the end, which is inserted into the bladder through the urethra, and allows Dr Choonara to see the inside of the bladder. Treatment depends on the condition and may require medication or surgery.

Enlarged Prostate

Enlarged Prostate (Prostatitis) is inflammation of the prostate gland. Prostatitis is classified into acute, chronic, asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis, and chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

Causes:

Like all forms of inflammation, it can be associated with an appropriate response of the body to an infection, but it also occurs in the absence of infection.

Treatment:

A range of treatments can relieve enlarged prostate symptoms — medications, minimally-invasive office procedures, and surgery. The best one for you depends on your symptoms, how severe they are, and whether you have other medical conditions.

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Call: (011) 482-2230

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Milpark Hospital, Suite 103, Guild Road, Parktown, Johannesburg