Female Urology

The subspecialty of female urology is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of those urinary tract disorders most prevalent in females. These include urinary incontinence and pelvic floor prolapse, voiding dysfunction, recurrent urinary tract infection, urethral syndrome and interstitial cystitis.


Urinary Incontinence

Incontinence is an involuntary loss of urine. It is a common and distressing problem, which may have a large impact on quality of life. Pelvic surgery, pregnancy, childbirth, and menopause are major risk factors. Urinary incontinence is often a result of an underlying medical condition but is under-reported to medical practitioners.


Urge incontinence – due to an overactive bladder

Stress incontinence – due to poor closure of the bladder

Overflow incontinence – due to either poor bladder contraction or blockage of the urethra

Functional incontinence – due to medications or health problems making it difficult to reach the bathroom.


Treatment is dependent on the type of incontinence. Current therapies include dietary changes, scheduled voiding, bladder retraining, pelvic muscle exercises, biofeedback, electrical stimulation therapy, medication, collagen implants and minimally invasive surgery.

Voiding Dysfunction

Voiding dysfunction can take many forms. The main symptoms are urinary frequency, urgency, painful urination and/or incomplete bladder emptying.


Treatment is aimed at decreasing or eliminating symptoms. Treatment may involve medications or pelvic floor relaxation exercises.

Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection

A recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) may be generally defined as three or more infections within one year. There may be no obvious cause, or it could be related to a urologic disorder such as stones, tumour, reflux (urine flows backwards toward the kidney) or ineffective bladder emptying.


Treatment is aimed at identifying the cause and/or proper antibiotic therapy to break the cycle of recurrent infection.

Urethral Syndrome

Urethral syndrome is a condition that affects the urethra, which is the tube that extends from your bladder to the outside of your body.
In females, the urethra is responsible for transporting urine out of the body. People with urethral syndrome have an inflamed or irritated urethra.


Treatment may consist of lifestyle changes, oral medication or local oestrogen replacement therapy. In some cases, Dr Choonara may need to widen your urethra by performing surgery or using dilators. Surgery is done only if the symptoms are thought to be due to constriction of the urethra. Constriction can occur due to injury, inflammation, and scar tissue.

Interstitial Cystitis (IC)

Interstitial Cystitis refers to the inflammation of the bladder wall. It is characterized by a feeling of pain and pressure in the bladder area. Along with this pain excessive urinary urgency, frequency, nocturia (night time urination) and pain in the lower abdomen and/or perineum.

It can occur at any age, however, the median age at diagnosis is between 42 and 46 years.


No single treatment works for all people with IC. Treatment must be chosen for each patient based on symptoms. It is important to know that none of these IC/BPS treatments works right away.  It usually takes weeks to months before symptoms improve.  Even with successful treatment, the condition may not be cured.  It is simply in remission.  However, most patients can get significant relief of their symptoms and lead a normal life with treatment.

Treatment includes

Lifestyle Changes, prescription drugs, Neuro-modulation Therapy, Ulcer Cauterization & Injections, Cyclosporine, and sometimes surgery.

Speak with a Specialist Urologist

Call: (011) 482-2230

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